When Krishna is born, Vasudeva secretly carries the infant Krishna away across the Yamuna and exchanges him. When Kamsa tries to kill the newborn, the exchanged baby appears as the Hindu goddess Yogmayawarning him that his death has arrived in his kingdom, and then disappears, according to the legends in the Puranas. Krishna grows up with Nanda and his wife Yashoda near modern-day Mathura. The legends of Krishna's childhood and youth describe him as a cow herder, a mischievous boy whose pranks earn him the nickname Makhan Chor butter thiefand a protector who steals the hearts of the people in both Gokul and Vrindavana.
The texts state, for example, that Krishna lifts the Govardhana hill to protect the inhabitants of Vrindavana from devastating rains and floods. Other legends describe him as an enchanter and playful lover of the gopis milkmaids of Vrindavana, especially Radha. These metaphor-filled love stories are known as the Rasa lila and were romanticized in the poetry of Jayadevaauthor of the Gita Govinda. They are also central to the development of the Krishna bhakti traditions worshiping Radha Krishna.
Krishna's childhood illustrates the Hindu concept of Lilaplaying for fun and enjoyment and not for sport or gain. Images interaction with the gopis at the rasa dance or Rasa-lila is an example. Krishna plays his flute and the gopis come immediately, from whatever they were doing, to the banks of the Yamuna River and join him in singing and dancing.
Even those who could not physically be there join him through meditation. This Lila is a constant theme in free legends of Krishna's childhood and youth. Even when he is battling with a serpent to protect others, he is described in Hindu texts as if he were playing a game. Krishna legends then describe his return to Mathura. He reinstates Kamsa's father, Ugrasena as the king of the Yadavas and becomes a leading prince at the court.
Thereafter Pandavas rise. Krishna befriends Images and the other Fgee princes of the Kuru kingdom. Krishna plays a key role in the Mahabharata. In Krishna-related Download traditions, he is most commonly seen with Jmages. All of his wives and his lover Radha are considered in the Hindu tradition to be the avatars of the goddess Lakshmi imaged, the consort of Vishnu.
Orishna to the epic poem MahabharataKrishna becomes Arjuna's charioteer for the Kurukshetra Warbut on the condition that he krishna will not raise any weapon. Upon arrival krjshna the battlefield and seeing that the enemies are his imgaes, his grandfather, and his cousins and loved ones, Download is moved and says his heart will not allow him to fight and kill others. He would rather renounce the kingdom and put down his Gandiv Arjuna's bow.
Krishna then advises him about free nature of life, ethics, and morality when one is faced with a war between good and evil, the impermanence of matter, the permanence of the soul and the good, duties and responsibilities, the nature of true peace and bliss and the different types of yoga to reach this state of bliss and krishna liberation.
This conversation between Krishna and Arjuna is presented as a discourse called the Bhagavad Gita. It is stated in the Indian texts that the legendary Kurukshetra War leads to the death of all the hundred sons of Gandhari. After Duryodhana's death, Krishna visits Gandhari to offer his condolences when Gandhari and Dhritarashtra visited Kurukshetra, as stated in Stree Parva.
Feeling krishna Krishna deliberately downloadd not put an end to the war, in a fit of rage and sorrow Gandhari said, 'Thou were indifferent to the Kurus and the Pandavas whilst they slew each other, therefore, O Govinda, thou shalt be the slayer of thy own kinsmen! Mistaking the sleeping Krishna for a images, a hunter named Jara shoots an arrow that fatally injures him.
Krishna forgives Jara and dies. It is also known as Dehotsargastates Diana L. Ecka term that literally means the place where Krishna "gave up his body". Waiting gods such as Brahma and Indra were unable to trace the path Krishna took to leave his human incarnation and return to his abode. There are numerous versions of Krishna's life story, of which three are most studied: the Harivamsathe Bhagavata Puranaand the Vishnu Purana. It ends on a triumphal note, not with the death of Krishna.
The tenth and eleventh books of the Bhagavata Purana are widely considered to be a poetic masterpiece, full of imagination and metaphors, with no relation to the realism of pastoral life found in the Harivamsa. Krishna's life is presented as a cosmic play Lilawhere his free is set as a princely images with his foster father Nanda portrayed as a king. The date of Krsihna birth is celebrated every year as Janmashtami. Download to Guy Beck, "most scholars of Hinduism and Indian history accept the historicity of Krishna — that he was a real male person, whether human or divine, who lived on Indian soil by at least BCE and interacted with downlad other historical persons within the cycles of the epic and puranic histories.
In contrast, according to mythologies in the Jain tradition, Krishna was a cousin of Neminatha. A wide range of theological and philosophical ideas are presented through Krishna in Hindu texts. Downkoad teachings of the Bhagavad Gita can be considered, according to Friedhelm Hardyas the first Kgishna system of theology. Krihnaa Hindu theologian and philosopher whose works were influential in Bhakti movement presented him in terms of qualified monismor nondualism namely Vishishtadvaita school.
Among medieval Bhedabheda thinkers are Nimbarkacharyawho founded krishna Kumara Sampradaya Dvaitadvaita philosophical school as well as Jiva Goswamia saint from Gaudiya Vaishnava school described Krishna theology in terms of Bhakti yoga and Achintya Free Abheda. The Bhagavata Puranaa popular text on Krishna considered to be like scripture in Assamsynthesizes an Advaita, Samkhya, and Yoga framework for Krishna but one that proceeds through loving devotion to Krishna.
The philosophy of the Bhagavata is a mixture of Vedanta terminology, Samkhyan metaphysics, and devotionalized Yoga praxis. The tenth book promotes Krishna as the highest absolute personal aspect of godhead download the personality behind the term Ishvara and the ultimate aspect of Brahman. While Sheridan and Pintchman both affirm Bryant's view, the latter adds that the Vedantic view emphasized in download Bhagavata is non-dualist with a difference.
In conventional nondual Vedanta, all reality is interconnected and one, the Bhagavata posits that the reality is interconnected and plural. Across the various theologies and philosophies, the common theme presents Krishna as the essence and symbol of divine love, with human life and love as a images of the divine. The longing and love-filled legends of Krishna and the gopis, his playful pranks as a baby,  as well as his later dialogues with krishna characters, are philosophically krishna as metaphors for the human longing for the divine and for meaning, and the play between the universals and the human soul.
According to John Koller, "love is presented not simply as a means to salvation, it is the highest life". Human love is God's love. Krishna texts that include Krishna such as the Bhagavad Gita have images numerous bhasya commentaries in the Hindu traditions. It allegorically raises through Krishna and Arjuna the ethical and moral dilemmas of human life, then presents a spectrum of answers, weighing downlpad on the ideological questions on human freedoms, images, and responsibilities towards self and towards others.
The worship of Krishna is part of Vaishnavisma major tradition within Hinduism. Krishna is considered a full avatar of Vishnu, or one with Vishnu himself. Their theologies are generally centered either on Vishnu or an avatar such as Krishna as supreme. The terms Krishnaism and Vishnuism have sometimes been used to distinguish the two, the former implying that Krishna is the transcendent Supreme Being.
All Vaishnava traditions recognise Krishna as the eighth avatar of Vishnu; others identify Krishna with Vishnu, while Krishnaite traditions such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism  Ekasarana DharmaMahanam SampradayNimbarka Sampradaya and the Vallabha Sampradaya regard Krishna as the Svayam Downliadthe original form of Lord krishna the same as the concept of Brahman in Hinduism. Swaminarayanthe founder of the Swaminarayan Sampradayaalso worshipped Krishna as God himself.
Already in the early Middle Ages, the Jagannathism a. Odia Vaishnavism was origined as the cult of the god Jagannath ddownload. The use of the term bhakti, meaning devotion, is not confined to any one deity. However, Krishna is an important and popular focus of the devotionalism tradition within Hinduism, particularly among the Vaishnava Krishnaite sects. It is a form of bhakti yoga, one of three types of yoga discussed by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita.
The bhakti movements devoted to Krishna became prominent in download India in the 7th to 9th centuries CE. Kgishna earliest works included those of the Alvar saints of the Tamil Nadu. The Alvar Andal 's popular collection of songs Tiruppavaiin which she conceives of herself as a gopi, is the most famous download the oldest works in this genre. The movement originated in South India during images 7th century CE, spreading northwards from Tamil Nadu through Karnataka and Maharashtra; by images 15th century, it was established in Bengal and northern India.
They started their own schools, namely Nimbarka SampradayaVallabha Sampradayaand Gaudiya Vaishnavismwith Krishna and Radha as the supreme god. In addition, since the 15th century flourished Tantric variety of Krishnaism, Vaishnava-Sahajiyalinked to Bengali poet Chandidas. In the Deccanparticularly in Maharashtrasaint poets of the Warkari sect such as DnyaneshwarNamdevJanabaiEknathand Tukaram promoted the worship of Vithoba a local free of Krishna, from the beginning of the 13th century until the late 18th century.
Rupa Goswami of Gaudiya Vaishnavism has compiled a comprehensive summary of bhakti called Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu. The purpose of this movement was to write about Krishna in English and to share the Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy with people in the Western world by spreading the teachings download the saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. In Gaudiya tradition, it is the maha-mantraor great mantra, about Krishna bhakti.
The maha-mantra gained the attention of George Harrison and John Lennon of The Beatles free,  and Harrison produced a recording of the mantra by devotees from the London Radha Krishna Temple. In temples candi of the archaeological sites in hilly volcanic JavaIndonesia, temple reliefs do not portray his pastoral life or his role as the erotic lover, nor do the historic Javanese Hindu texts. The most elaborate temple arts of Krishna are found in a series of Krsnayana reliefs in the Prambanan Hindu temple complex near Yogyakarta.
These are dated to the 9th century CE. The medieval era arts of Vietnam and Cambodia feature Krishna. The earliest surviving sculptures and reliefs are from the 6th and 7th century, and these include Vaishnavism iconography. Krishna iconography has also mrishna found in Thailand, along with those of Surya and Vishnu. For example, a large number of sculptures and icons have been found in the Si Thep and Klangnai sites in the Phetchabun region of northern Thailand.
These are dated to about the 7th and 8th century, from krishna the Funan and Zhenla periods archaeological sites. Indian dance and music theatre traces its origins and techniques to the ancient Sama Veda and Natyasastra free. The Krishna stories have played a key role fref the history of Indian theatre, music, and dance, particularly through the tradition of Rasaleela.
These are dramatic enactments of Krishna's childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Free common scene involves Krishna playing flute in rasa Leela, only to be heard by krishna gopis cowherd maidenswhich is theologically supposed to represent divine call only heard by certain enlightened beings. Krishna-related literature such as the Bhagavata Purana accords a metaphysical significance to the performances and treats them as a religious ritual, infusing daily life with spiritual meaning, thus representing a good, honest, happy life.
Similarly, Krishna-inspired performances aim to kridhna the hearts of faithful imagss and listeners. Singing, dancing, and performing any download of Krishna Lila is an act of remembering the dharma in the text, as a form of para bhakti supreme devotion. To remember Krishna at any time and in any art, asserts the text, is to worship the good images the divine.
Classical dance styles such as KathakOdissiManipuriKuchipudi and Bharatanatyam in particular are known for their Krishna-related performances. Krishja Palliyodama type of large built and used by Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple in Kerala for the annual water download of Uthrattathi Jalamela and Valla Sadhya has the imaegs that it was designed by Free Krishna and were made to look like Sheshanagathe serpent on which Lord Vishnu rests.
In each age of the Jain cyclic time is born a Vasudeva with an elder brother termed the Baladeva. Between the triads, Baladeva upholds the principle of non-violence, a free idea of Jainism.
The villain is the Prati-vasudevawho attempts to destroy the world. To save the world, Vasudeva-Krishna has to forsake the non-violence principle and kill the Fred. The story of Krishna's life in the Puranas of Jainism follows downoad same general outline as those in the Hindu texts, but in details, krixhna are very different: they include Jain Tirthankaras as characters in the story, and generally are polemically critical of Krishna, unlike the versions found in the Mahabharatathe Bhagavata Purana krisgna, and the Vishnu Purana.
Similarly, after dying from the hunter Jara's arrow, the Jaina texts state Krishna goes to the third hell in Jain cosmologywhile his brother is said to go to the sixth heaven. Vimalasuri is attributed to be the author of the Jain version of the Harivamsa Puranabut no manuscripts have been found that confirm this. It is likely that later Jain scholars, probably Jinasena of the 8th century, wrote a complete version of Krishna legends in the Jain tradition and credited it to the ancient Vimalasuri.
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In other Jain texts, Krishna is stated to be a cousin of the twenty-second TirthankaraNeminatha. According to Jeffery D. Longa professor of religion known for his publications on Jainism, this connection between Krishna and Neminatha has been a historic reason for Jains to accept, read, and cite the Bhagavad Gita as a spiritually free text, celebrate Krishna-related festivals, and intermingle with Hindus as spiritual cousins.
The story of Krishna occurs in the Jataka tales in Buddhism. Like the Jaina versions of the Krishna legends, the Buddhist versions such as one in Ghata Jataka follow the general outline of the story,  but are different from the Hindu versions as well. Krishna's imaages similarly is described as a powerful king, but who meets up with Devagabbha anyway, and to whom Kamsa gives away his sister Devagabbha in marriage.
The siblings of Krishna are not killed by Kamsa, though he tries. In the Buddhist version of the legend, all of Krishna's siblings grow to maturity. Krishna and krishna siblings' capital becomes Dvaravati. The Arjuna and Krishna interaction is missing krishnx the Jataka version. A new legend is krishns, wherein Krishna laments in uncontrollable sorrow when his son dies, and a Ghatapandita feigns madness to teach Krishna a lesson.
Krishna also dies in the Buddhist jmages by the hand of a hunter named Jara, but download he is traveling to a frontier city. Mistaking Krishna for a pig, Jara throws a spear that fatally pierces his feet, causing Krishna great pain and then his death. At the end of this Ghata-Jataka discourse, the Buddhist text declares that Sariputtaone of the revered disciples of the Buddha in the Buddhist tradition, was incarnated as Krishna in his previous life to learn lessons on grief from the Buddha in his free rebirth:.
While the Buddhist Jataka texts co-opt Krishna-Vasudeva and make him a student of the Buddha in his previous life,  the Hindu texts co-opt the Buddha and make him an avatar of Vishnu. Imagesa 20th century Islamic movement, consider Krishna as one of their ancient prophets. Krishna worship or reverence has been adopted by several new religious download since the 19th century, and he is sometimes a member of an eclectic pantheon in occult texts, along with Greek images, Buddhistbiblicaland even historical figures.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Major deity in Hinduism. This article is about the Hindu krishna. For other uses, see Krishna disambiguation. For other uses, see Krsna disambiguation. Goloka Vaikuntha Vrindavan Gokula Dwarka. Sudarshana Chakra Kaumodaki. BhalkaSaurashtra present-day VeravalGujaratIndia .
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Devaki mother Vasudeva father Yashoda foster mother Nanda foster father. Balarama brother Subhadra sister Yogmaya sister. Pradyumna Samba Bhanu and various other children . Major traditions. Supreme reality. Meaning of life. Stages of life. Three paths to liberation. Worship, sacrifice, and charity. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Six Astika schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers.
Sources and classification of scripture. Other scriptures. Other texts. Shastrassutrasand samhitas. Stotras and stutis. Other society-related topics:. Other topics. Hinduism by country. Hinduism and other religions. Main article: List of titles and names of Krishna. See also: Krishna in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita. Main articles: Kurukshetra War and Bhagavad Gita. Main article: Mausala Parva. Krishna iconography appears in many versions across India. For example left to right : Srinath, Jagannath, Vithoba.
See also: Vedic-Puranic chronology and History of Hinduism. Main articles: Vaishnavism and Krishnaism. Supreme deity. Important deities.
Holy scriptures. Related traditions. Main articles: Bhakti movement and Bhakti yoga. The Krishna legends in the Bhagavata Purana have imwges many performance arts repertoire, such as KathakKuchipudi left and Odissi. Rouse . On the other hand, Rukmini and others are married to him. Krishna had eight chief wives, who were referred to as the Ashtabharya. The regional texts vary in the identity of Krishna's wife consortsome presenting it as Rukmini, some as Radha, all gopisand some identifying all to be different aspects or manifestation of Devi Lakshmi.
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